Autism

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Autism is a complex dis-ability that affects the perception, processing and functioning of brain.  Autistic children have difficulties in verbal & non-verbal communication, and often have delayed language development. They also have mental retardation. About 10-20% autistic children begin to improve between 4 to 6 years of age and eventually attend an ordinary school and obtain work. But 10-20% can live at home but need to attend a special school or training centre and cannot work. Autism is a neuro-biological disorder affecting the neuron-anatomy & neuro-chemistry of the brain. CT scans have isolated a subgroup of autistic children with enlarged ventricles and MRI has identified a subgroup of autistic adults with hypoplasia of the cerebellar vernius. Some harmful substances ingested during pregnancy also have been associated with a risk of autism. An accurate diagnosis must be based on observation of the child’s communication, behaviour & developmental levels. The characteristic 4 behaviour of a child are suggestive of autism that needs further assessment:-

  • Does not gesture (point, wave, grasp) by 12 months
  • Does not say single words by 16months
  • Does not say two-word phrases on his/her own by 24 months
  • Has any loss of any language or social skill at any age

Autism can be diagnosed by following criteria:-Watch Full Movie Online Streaming Online and Download

(1)     Impairment in the social interactions and non-verbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye contact, and facial expression.

(2)      Lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements with other people.

(3)     Persistent per-occupation and lack of emotional reciprocity.

(4)     Delay in the development of spoken language or repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic language.

(5)     stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (e.g., hand or finger flapping or twisting, or body movements)

Treatments: Autism usually requires lifelong multidimensional approach of combined treatments such Behavior modification, Communication therapy, Dietary modifications and medicines. Other physical therapies such as ayurvedic massage, Panch karma procedures are used to help child control body movement.

 

 

Behavior modification Positive reinforcement to teach self care skills: Speech therapy (also sign language teaching) and structured class room training. (”special schooling”).

  • Development of regular routine with minimum or no changes
  • Behavioral techniques to encourage social & interpersonal interaction.

 

 

Medication Chemical or natural medicines may be used to treat various symptoms of autism e.g. attention difficulties, anxiety & can also be used to treat that may accompany the disorder (eg-epilepsy). Depression, obsessive-compulsive behavior & anxiety may be treated using antidepressants or Medhya Rasayana group of ayurvedic herbs. These medicines often reduce the frequency & intensity of repetitive behavior & irritability, tantrums & aggression & improve eye contact & responsiveness.

 

Communication therapy: this therapy is used to treat autistic patients who are unable to communicate verbally or to initiate language development. In young children with the disorder, speech therapy may be used to help the patients gain the ability to speak.

Dietary modification
Changing the diet or adding dietary supplements may improve digestion and eliminate food intolerances or allergies which may contribute to behavioural problems in autistic patients. Vitamin B, magnesium & cod liver oil supplements (contain A&D) may improve behaviour, eye contact, attention span & learning in autistic patients. Vitamin C improves depression.

 

Differential diagnosis:

    1. Child Schizophrenia: In infantile autism in contrast to children schizophrenia there is little or no period of normal development, mental retardation & epilepsy are common, have symptoms suggestive of negative symptoms of schizophrenia & there are no hallucination or delusions.
    2. Reactive attachment disorder of infancy: This disorder is characterized by a failure to establish normal attachment to a caregiver or an indiscriminate sociability. This is the result of psychosocial deprivation or abuse. These children have potentials for normal imaginative play & normal responses to the environment. There are no motor abnormalities & they are not mentally retarded.
    3. Elective mutism: There is absence of speech in some but not necessarily all environments. These children communicate via gesture, nodding or short monosyllabic utterances.
  • Others: The other disorders need to be differentiated are Tourette’s disorder, habit disorder’ obsessive compulsive disorder, attention deficit, specific developmental (language) disorder, acquired aphasia with convulsions, schizoid personality, neuron-degenerative diseases & Mental retardation.

 

 

 

 

 

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